His Imperial and Royal Highness, Archduke Charles Philipp of Habsburg-Lorraine (in Spain: Su Alteza Imperial y Real Don Carlos Felipe de Habsburgo-Lorena) and His Imperial and Royal Highness, Archduchess Annie-Claire of Habsburg-Lorraine (in Spain: Su Alteza Imperial y Real Doña Annie-Claire de Habsburgo-Lorena)
HIRH Archduke Charles Philipp and his wife HIRH Archduchess Annie-Claire befor the Castle of Chapultepec in Mexico City
His Imperial and Royal Highness, Archduke Charles Philipp of Habsburg-Lorraine (spain: Carlos Felipe María Otón Lucas Marcos de Aviano Melchor de Habsburgo-Lorena y Arenberg), Imperial Prince of Austria, Royal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia, Duke of Lorraine, etc., is second child and first male of His Imperial and Royal Highness Archduke Felix of Habsburg-Lorraine and Princess and Duchess Anna-Eugenia of Arenberg.
By paternal line, HIRH Charles Philipp is the grandson of Blessed Charles I, Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia, etc. (he was beatified in Rome by the Pope John Paul II himself on October 3, 2004) and of Empress Zita and great-great-nephew of Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico and Empress Carlota, and of Emperor Francis Josef I of Austria and the Empress Elisabeth („Sisi“).
/The Emperor, Blessed Charles I (1887-1922) is widely remembered for his fight for peace during the World War I. It is also known that during the time of worst famine he had all the court horses killed to feed the people of Vienna and to give pieces of firewood for carriages and furniture so that the people could warm themselves during the winter./
The Archduke’s academic background consists of a Bachelor in International Relations (1973-1975), El Colegio de México, Mexico City, Mexico; a Bachelor of Business Administration (1975-1978), Instituto Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico; a Master of Business Administration (1978-1980), from the prestigious Jesuit insitution Escuela Superior de Administración y Dirección de Empresas, Barcelona, Spain, and a Diploma Financial Derivatives (2011-2012), Mexico City, Mexico.
The Archduke worked at AWT Internationale Handels and Finanzierung A.G., Vienna, Austria from 1988 to 1990, was a Delegate of the Foreign Trade Bank (BANCOMEXT) in Vienna, Bonn, and Montréal and is currently President of Habsburg Financial Services, a wealth management firm.
The Archduke is fluent in several languages such as Spanish, German, French, English and Catalan, besides understanding several other European languages. In addition, his great taste for music has also led him to be a member of the Board of Trustees of the Music Festival of Morelia, over which he has presided since March 2012.
The Archduke and his first wife Martina, neé Donath have one child:
HIRH Julián Lorenzo Pedro de Habsburgo-Lorraine (born May 29, 1994 in Montréal)
and with his second wife HIRH Annie-Claire Andree Christine, neé Lacrambe (got married on May 12, 1998 in the Cathedral of Seville) have also one child:
HIRH Louis-Damien Henri Maria Marcos d'Aviano Melchor de Habsburgo-Lorraine (born September 23, 1998 in Montréal).
The Archduke is an intellectual and aficionado of the history of the House of Austria and his family traditions which has led him to give numerous lectures about his uncle, Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico, along with the European branches of his family. Moreover, he delivers conferences around the world on financial derivatives and asset management using derivative or structured financial products.
His Imperial and Royal Highness, Archduchess Annie-Claire Andree Christine of Habsburg-Lorraine (neé Lacrambe)
The Archduchess was born in Pau, France, on February 15, 1959, she was the first daughter of Dr. Henri Lacrambe, general practitioner of the French armed forces, knight of the Legion of Honor and officer of the National Order of Merit, veteran of the Algerian War of Independence, and Fanny Pruvost de Montrichard.
The Archduchess studied management at the Pau School of Commerce, in her hometown. She moved to Mexico for professional reasons in the 1980s, where, among other positions, she served as a professor at the Universidad Iberoamericana and deputy director of the business school at Universidad Anáhuac, both in Mexico City.
The Archduchess was Director of international and industrial logistics projects, member of the Board of Directors, vice president and General Secretary of the Franco-Mexican Chamber of Commerce and Industry; She is Chancellor of the Mexican Association of the Order of Malta in Mexico and commercial attaché of the National Bank of Foreign Trade (Mexico) (BANCOMEXT) in Montreal, Canada. She currently accompanies her husband in different events representing the Habsburg family, and as a delegate in Mexico of the Prayer League of Blessed Carlos of Austria for peace between the Nations.
father of HIRH Archduke Charles Philipp of Habsburg-Lorraine
His Imperial and Royal Highness, Archduke Felix Frederick Augustus of Habsburg-Lorraine, Imperial Prince of Austria, Royal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia, etc.
HIRH Archduke Felix Frederick Augustus of Habsburg-Lorraine,
Imperial Prince of Austria, Royal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia
His Imperial and Royal Highness, Archduke Felix Frederick Augustus of Habsburg-Lorraine (german: Felix Friedrich August Maria vom Siege Franz Joseph Peter Karl Anton Robert Otto Pius Michael Benedikt Sebastian Ignatius Marcus d'Aviano), Imperial Prince of Austria, Royal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia, etc. (31 May 1916 – 6 September 2011), and great-nephew of the Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico (1832-1867).
His father was the Blessed Charles I, Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia, etc., the last Emperor of Austria (1887-1922).
The Archduke Felix was only three years old when the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire occurred, which would lead his family into exile, first in Switzerland and Madeira (Portugal), where his father died (1.4.1922), and then in Belgium.
Later he lived in the United States and Mexico. Unlike his brother the Crown Prince Otto, (who died on July 4, 2011 in Bavaria, Germany), the Archduke Felix of Habsburg-Lorraine never renounced his rights to the Austrian throne (!)
As a result of this refusal, he was never able to obtain permission to return to his country, except for a brief three-day stay in 1989 to attend the funeral of his mother, Empress Zita.
Later, in 1996, when the European Union freed its borders, he was able to enter illegally from Germany. On that occasion, he gave a press conference, for which the Austrian government warned him that if he illegally re-entered the country he would be persecuted (!)
Finally, an agreement was reached between the Archduke Felix, his brother the Archduke Charles Lewis, and the Austrian government, in which declared loyalty to the Republic without referring to his rights to the throne and his membership in the imperial family.
During his stay in the United States, the Archduke Felix served as an advisor to President F. D. Roosevelt to try to counter the influence of the Nazis in the Austrian Army and as an expert on the Tyrolean region (the Nazis had blacklisted the Habsburgs and condemned to dead).
In 1942 he joined the US Army in a special Austrian battalion that was disbanded shortly thereafter.
At the end of the 1940s, the Archduke Felix arrived in Mexico where he would stay permanently. He married the Belgian Princess and Duchess Anna-Eugenia of Arenberg in 1952 and had seven children:
Archduchess María del Pilar, Archduke Carlos Felipe, Archduchess Kinga Barbara, Archduke Raimundo, Archduchess Myriam, Archduke Esteban and Archduchess Viridis.
Coat of Arms of the Imperial and Royal House of Habsburg-Lorraine
great Coat of Arms of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Coat of Arms of the Second Mexican Empire (1864-1867)
Blessed Charles I, Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia, etc.
Blessed Charles I, Emperor of Austria, Empress Zita and children
ancestors of HIRH Archduke Charles Philipp of Habsburg-Lorraine
HIRH Archduke Martin of Austria-Este, Imperial Prince of Austria, Royal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia, Prince of Modena
HIRH Archduke Martin of Austria-Este, Imperial Prince of Austria, Royal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia, Prince of Modena, (full name in Italy: Carlo Amedeo Maria, Arciduca d’Austria Este, Principe Imperiale d’Austria, Principe Reale d’Ungheria e Boemia, Principe di Modena), (*Boulogne-sur-Seine on 21 December 1959)
HIRH Archduke Martin of Austria-Este has four siblings:
Archduchess Maria Beatrice (*11 December 1954), who married on 26 April 1980 in Chartres Count Riprand of Arco-Zinneberg
Archduke Gerhard (*30 October 1957), who wed in 2015 Iris Jandrasits (born 1961)
Archduchess Isabella (*2 March 1963), who wed Count Andrea Czarnocki-Lucheschi
On May 10, 2004 in Birstein, (Germany) HIRH Archduke Martin of Austria-Este married Princess Katharina Elisabeth Helene of Isenburg-Birstein (*1971, daughter of HRH Franz Alexander 6th Prince of Isenburg and Princess Christine, née Countess of Saurma-Jeltsch) and they have four children:
HIRH Bartolomeo Carlo Roberto, Archduke of Austria-Este, Imperial Prince of Austria, Royal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia, Prince of Modena, (*Pavia on 27 July 2006)
HIRH Emmanuele Achatius Francesco Alessandro Archduke of Austria-Este, Imperial Prince of Austria, Royal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia, Prince of Modena, (*Pavia on February 15, 2008)
HIRH Elena, Archduchess of Austria-Este, Imperial Princess of Austria, Royal Princess of Hungary and Bohemia, Princess of Modena, (*Pavia on 13 July 2009)
HIRH Luigi Amedeo Taddeo, Archduke of Austria-Este, Imperial Prince of Austria, Royal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia, Prince of Modena, (*Pavia on February 12, 2011)
Archduchess Katharina Elisabeth Helene of Austria-Este has two sister and two brothers:
Isabelle, Dowager Princess of Wied
Prince Alexander of Isenburg-Birstein
Prince Viktor of Isenburg-Birstein
father of HIRH Archduke Martin of Austria-Este
HIRH Archduke Robert of Austria-Este, Imperial Prince of Austria, Royal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia, Duke of Modena
HIRH Archduke Robert of Austria-Este with his wife Archduchess Margherita of Austria-Este, neé Princess of Savoy-Aosta
HIRH Archduke Robert, of Austria-Este (full name in German: Robert Karl Ludwig Maximilian Michael Maria Anton Franz Ferdinand Joseph Otto Hubert George Pius Johannes Marcus d'Aviano) (* 8. February 1915, Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna, Austria-Hungary – 7 February 1996, Basel, Basel-Stadt, Switzerland), was the second son of Emperor Blessed Charles I, last Emperor of Austria-Hungary, and Empress Zita, née Princess of Bourbon-Parma.
On 16 April 1917, at the age of two, his father the Emperor Charles I ceded the title of Archduke of Austria-Este in his favor. Archduke Robert was thereby chosen to preserve, in the form of a distinct secundogeniture, the Habsburg-Lorraine representation of the once-sovereign Duchy of Modena which had belonged to the House of Este. He was thus made heir to his assassinated relative Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, (1863–1914), who had inherited in 1875 the Austria-Este designation and what had been salvaged of the Este fortune when the duchy was annexed to Italy in 1860.
Archduke Robert descended through his Habsburg father from Ercole III d'Este, Duke of Modena, and his mother Empress Zita was a descendant of Maria Beatrice d'Este, heiress of Modena and her husband, Archduke Ferdinand of Austria. Thus the lineage of the last Este dukes, in female descent, remained joined to the Austria-Este legacy. Archduke Robert eventually adopted use for himself and his descendants in male line the surname Austria-Este, and he took also the title Duke of Este, intended henceforth to be borne by the head of the Austria-Este branch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine.
Upon his death in 1996 he was succeeded as head of this line by his son, Lorenz of Austria-Este, Prince of Belgium (born 1955). Although the marriage of his eldest son to Princess Astrid of Belgium, relegated use of the Austria-Este archdukedom to a secondary title in that realm, the title continues in use elsewhere among his cadet descendants.
Archduke Robert married Princess Margherita of Savoy-Aosta (born 7 April 1930), elder daughter of the late Amadeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta on 28 December 1953 in Bourg-en-Bresse, France (civilly) and 29 December 1953 (religiously), in Brou, France.
great Coat of Arms of the House of Austria-Este by H. Ströhl
small Coat of Arms of House of Austria-Este
flag of the Duchy of Modena
Coat of Arms of House of Isenburg-Birstein (1800)
Francis V, Duke of Modena, Reggio and Guastalla, Archduke of Austria-Este, Royal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia, Duke of Mirandola and of Massa (1819-1875)
HIRH Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Este (1863-1914), with his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, née Countess Chotek of Chotkov and Vojnin (1868-1914) and their children: Prince Ernst of Hohenberg, Maximilian, Duke of Hohenberg and Princess Sophie of Hohenberg
yellow lined: Duchy of Modena (Italy)
the Ducal Palace of Modena (Italy) in the 18th century
the Ducal Palace of Modena (Italy)
the Ducal Palace in Sassuolo (Italy)
the Ducal Palace in Massa (Italy)
the Ducal Palace in Vienna (Austria)
Konopiště Castle (Czech Rep.), residence of HIRH Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Este
Birstein Castle (Germany), residence of House of Isenburg-Birstein
Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico
The Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico (born with full name - German: Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph Maria von Habsburg-Lothringen, Spanish: Fernando Maximiliano José María de Habsburgo-Lorena; *6 July 1832, Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna, Austria, +19 June 1867, Cerro de las Campanas, Mexico )
His father was Archduke Franz Karl (1802-1878), the second surviving son of the last Holy Roman Emperor and the first Austrian Emperor - Francis I (1768-1835), during whose reign he was born. Maximilian was thus a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, a female-line cadet branch of the House of Habsburg. His mother was Princess Sophie of Bavaria (1805-1872), a member of the House of Wittelsbach.
Archduke Maximilian was a particularly clever boy who displayed considerable culture in his taste for the arts, and he demonstrated an early interest in science, especially botany. When he entered military service, he was trained in the Imperial Austrian Navy. He threw himself into this career with so much zeal that he quickly rose to high command.
He was made a lieutenant in the navy at the age of eighteen. In 1854, he sailed as commander in the corvette Minerva, on an exploring expedition along the coast of Albania and Dalmatia. Archduke Maximilian was especially interested in maritime matters and undertook many long-distance journeys (for Brazil) on the frigate Elisabeth. In 1854, when he was only 22 years old—as a younger brother of the emperor, and thus a member of the ruling family—he was appointed as commander-in-chief of the Imperial Austrian Navy (1854–1861), which he reorganized in the following years. Archduke Maximilian had a keen personal interest in the fleet, and with him the Austrian naval force gained an influential supporter from the ranks of the imperial family. This was crucial, as sea power had never been a priority of Austrian foreign policy, and the navy itself was relatively little known or supported by the public. It was only able to draw significant public attention and funds when it was actively supported by an imperial prince. As commander-in-chief, Archduke Maximilian carried out many reforms to modernise the naval forces, and was instrumental in creating the naval port at Trieste and Pula, as well as the battle fleet with which Admiral Wilhelm von Tegetthoff (1827-1871) would later secure his victories. He also initiated a large-scale scientific expedition (1857–1859) during which the frigate SMS Novara became the first Austrian warship to circumnavigate the globe.
Archduke Maximilian was very much influenced by the progressive ideas in vogue at the time. He had a reputation as a liberal, and this was one of several considerations leading to his appointment as viceroy of the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia in February 1857. His brother Emperor Franz Joseph I had decided on the need to replace the elderly field marschal Count Josef Václav Radecký of Radče (1766-1858), to divert growing discontent amongst the Italian population through token liberalization, and to encourage a degree of personal loyalty to the Habsburg dynasty.
On 27 July 1857, in Brussels, Archduke Maximilian married his second cousin Charlotte, the daughter of the King Leopold I of Belgium and Louise of Orléans. They lived in Milan, the capital of Lombardy-Venetia, from 1857 until 1859, when Emperor Franz Joseph I, angered by his brother's liberal policies, dismissed him. Shortly after, Austria lost control of most of its Italian possessions. Archduke Maximilian then retired to Trieste, near which he built Miramare Castle. At the same time, the couple acquired a converted monastery on the island of Lokrum as a holiday residence. Both estates had extensive gardens, reflecting Maximilian's horticultural interests.
In 1859, Archduke Maximilian was first approached by Mexican monarchists—members of the Mexican nobility, led by José Pablo Martínez del Río—with a proposal to become the emperor of Mexico. The Habsburg family had ruled the Viceroyalty of New Spain from its establishment until the Spanish throne was inherited by the Bourbons. Archduke Maximilian was considered to have more potential legitimacy than other royal figures, and was unlikely to ever rule in Europe due to his elder brother.
On 20 October 1861 in Paris, Archduke Maximilian received a letter from Gutierrez de Estrada asking him to take the Mexican throne. He did not accept at first, but sought to satisfy his restless desire for adventure with a botanical expedition to the tropical forests of Brazil. However, Archduke Maximilian changed his mind after the French intervention in Mexico. At the invitation of the French Emperor Napoleon III, after General Élie-Frédéric Forey's capture of Mexico City and a French-organized plebiscite that confirmed the proclamation of the empire, Archduke Maximilian consented to accept the crown in October 1863. On 9 April 1864 Archduke Maximilian met with his brother Emperor Francis Joseph I at Miramare Castle to sign a "Family Pact". In this document Archduke Maximilian renounced any rights to the Austrian throne or as an Archduke of Austria. This renunciation followed an extended period of negotiations between the two brothers and was agreed to by Archduke Maximilian with reluctance. On 10 April 1864 Archduke Maximilian officially accepted the crown of the Mexican throne.
Archduke Maximilian traveled to Mexico from Trieste aboard SMS Novara, escorted by the frigates SMS Bellona (Austrian) and Thémis (French), and the Imperial yacht Phantasie led the warship procession from his palace at Miramare out to sea. They received a blessing from Pope Pius IX, and Queen Victoria ordered the Gibraltar garrison to fire a salute for Maximilian's passing ship.
Archduke Maximilian, now as Maximilian I , emperor of Mexico, landed at Veracruz on 29 May 1864, and received a cold reception from the townspeople. Veracruz was a liberal town, and the liberal voters were opposed to having Archduke Maximilian on the throne. There was continuous fighting between the French expeditionary forces (who were supplemented by Maximilian's recruited imperial troops, also from Austrian Empire) on one side and the Mexican Republicans led by President Benito Juárez on the other.
The imperial couple chose as their seat Mexico City. The emperor and empress set up their residence at Chapultepec Castle, located on the top of a hill formerly on the outskirts of Mexico City that had been a retreat of Aztec emperors. Emperor Maximilian I ordered a wide avenue cut through the city from Chapultepec to the city center named Paseo de Chapultepec or Paseo de la Emperatriz. The royal couple made plans to be crowned at the Catedral Metropolitana, but due to the constant instability of the regime, the coronation was never carried out.
To the dismay of his conservative allies, Emperor Maximilian I upheld several liberal policies proposed by the Juárez administration, such as land reforms, religious freedom, and extending the right to vote beyond the landholding classes. At first, Emperor Maximilian I offered Juárez an amnesty if he would swear allegiance to the crown, even offering him the post of prime minister, which Juárez refused.
After the end of the American Civil War, President of the USA Andrew Johnson invoked the Monroe Doctrine and recognized the Juarez government as the legitimate government of Mexico. The United States applied increasing diplomatic pressure to persuade French Emperor Napoleon III to end French support of Emperor Maximilian I and to withdraw French troops from Mexico. USA began supplying partisans of Juárez and his ally Porfirio Díaz by "losing" arms depots to them at El Paso del Norte at the Mexican border. The prospect of an American invasion to reinstate Juárez caused a large number of Emperor Maximilian's loyal adherents to abandon his cause and leave the capital.
Emperor Maximilian I invited ex-Confederates to move to Mexico in a series of settlements called the "Carlota Colony" and the New Virginia Colony, with a dozen others being considered, a plan conceived by the internationally renowned U.S. Navy oceanographer and inventor Matthew Fontaine Maury. Emperor Maximilian I also invited settlers from "any country", including Austria and the other German states.
In 1866, the imminence of the Emperor Maximilian's abdication seemed apparent to almost everyone outside Mexico. That year, French Emperor Napoleon III withdrew his troops in the face of Mexican resistance and U.S. opposition under the Monroe Doctrine, as well as to strengthen his forces at home to face the ever-growing Prussian military and von Bismarck. Empress Charlotte travelled to Europe, seeking assistance for her husband's regime in Paris and Vienna and, finally, in Rome from Pope Pius IX. Her efforts failed, and she suffered a deep emotional collapse and never went back to Mexico.
Though urged to abandon Mexico by French Emperor Napoleon III himself, whose troop withdrawal from Mexico was a great blow to the Mexican Imperial cause, Emperor Maximilian I was reluctant to desert his followers. Uncertain as to his future course of action, Emperor Maximilian I allowed a conference of twenty-three of his supporters to vote against his abdication. Faithful generals such as Miguel Miramón, Leonardo Márquez, and Tomás Mejía vowed to raise an army that would challenge the invading Republicans. Emperor Maximilian I fought on with his army of 8,000 Mexican loyalists. Withdrawing, in February 1867, to Santiago de Querétaro, he sustained a siege for several weeks, but on 11 May resolved to attempt an escape through the enemy lines. This plan was sabotaged by Colonel Miguel López who secretly agreed with the Republican General Escobedo to open a gate and lead a raiding party to seize the Imperial headquarters. López appears to have assumed that Emperor Maximilian I would be allowed to escape.
Santiago de Querétaro fell on 15 May 1867 and Emperor Maximilian I was captured the next morning after the failure of an attempt to escape through Republican lines by a loyal hussar cavalry brigade led by the Prince Felix of Salm-Salm. Following a court-martial, he was sentenced to death. A number of the crowned heads of Europe and other prominent figures (including the eminent liberals Victor Hugo and Giuseppe Garibaldi) sent telegrams and letters to Mexico requesting that the Emperor's life be spared.
Although he liked Emperor Maximilian I on a personal level, Juárez refused to commute the sentence in view of the Mexicans who had been killed fighting against Maximilian's forces, and because he believed it was necessary to send a message that Mexico would not tolerate any government imposed by foreign powers. Prince Felix of Salm-Salm and his wife masterminded a plan and bribed the jailors to allow Emperor Maximilian I to escape execution. However, Emperor Maximilian I would not go through with the plan because he felt that shaving his beard to avoid recognition would ruin his dignity if he were to be recaptured.
The sentence was carried out in the Cerro de las Campanas at 6:40 a.m. on the morning of 19 June 1867, when Emperor Maximilian I, along with Generals Miramón and Mejía, was executed by a firing squad. He spoke only in Spanish and gave each of his executioners a gold coin not to shoot him in the head so that his mother could see his face. His last words were spoken in Spanish: „Mexicanos! Muero por la causa de México. No dejen que nadie pise sus ideales, ni sus derechos más sagrados. Espero que la sangre de este mexicano sea la última que se derrame. Viva México!" ("I forgive everyone, and I ask everyone to forgive me. May my blood, which is about to be shed, be for the good of the country. Viva México! ").
After his execution, body of Emperor Maximilian I was embalmed and displayed in Mexico. Early the following year, the Austrian admiral Wilhelm von Tegetthoff was sent to Mexico aboard SMS Novara to take the former emperor's body back to Austria. After arriving in Trieste, the coffin was taken to Vienna and placed within the Imperial Crypt, on 18 January 1868. The Emperor Maximilian Memorial Chapel was constructed on the hill where his execution took place in 1901.
Emperor of Austria Francis Joseph I (sitting) with his brothers (including Maximilian), 1863
Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico and his wife Empress Charlotte
Mexican delegation offers the Mexican throne to the Archduke Maximilian of Austria in Miramare Castle by Cesare Dell'Acqua (1867)
portrait of the Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico, 1864
portrait of the Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico
CoA of the Second Mexican Empire (1864-1867)
official flag of the Second Mexican Empire (1864-1867)
official personal flag of the Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico (1864-1867)
postage stamp from the time of government of the Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico
map of the Second Mexican Empire (1864-1867)
Miramare Castle by Trieste in Italy (ca 1915)
Miramare Castle by Trieste in Italy
Mexico City, Chapultepec Castle, (ca 1885)
Mexico City, Chapultepec Castle
Mexico City, Chapultepec Castle at night
Execution of the Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico with gen. Miramón and Mejía, June 19, 1867, by Edouard Manet, painted 1868
Embarkation of the body of the late Emperor Maximilian I at Vera Cruz, Mexico by frigate Novara, in The Illustrated London News, 11.1.1868
tomb of the Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico in Vienna
castle and the town of Hardegg in Austria, in the castle is the museum of Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico.
The castle was owned by Prince Johann Karl Khevenhüller-Metsch (1839-1905). In 1864 he became a member of the corps of Austrian volunteers in Mexico. After the departure of the majority army of the French in 1866, Khevenhüller remained and was appointed commander of a cavalry regiment of 800 men, called the "Red Hussars". He served emperor until the tragic end of his reign. He witnessed unsuccessful negotiations with President Juárez. When the emperor was executed, it was Khevenhüller who hoisted a white flag on the citadel. He was captured by the insurgents and negotiated with General Porfirio Diaz for the free departure of his regiment.
He escorted the emperor's coffin back to Austria.
He kept a diary throughout his stay in Mexico.
/article in czech:/
Kantábrie a „Cuerpo de la Nobleza de Cantabria“
/Kantábrie a „Šlechtický sbor Kantábrie“/
Víte, že v České republice existuje „pobočka“ Španělské šlechtické instituce?
V roce 2020 byl do České republiky uveden „Cuerpo de la Nobleza de Cantabria“ neboli „Šlechtický sbor Kantábrie“, resp. generální místodržitelství („General Lieutenancy“) šlechtického Řádu svatého Sergia („Orden Nobiliaria de San Sergio“), který je s tímto šlechtickým sborem neoddělitelně spjatý.
trocha zeměpisu a dějepisu
Kantábrie též Kantabrie (španělsky Cantabria) je provincie a současně jedno ze 17 autonomních společenství, rozkládající se na severu Španělska při pobřeží Biskajského zálivu. Metropolí tohoto hornatého regionu, je přístavní město Santander, přičemž populace tohoto regionu čítá přibližně 600 tisíc obyvatel.
Na východě Kantábrie sousedí s Baskickem (provincie Vizcaya), na jihu s Kastilií a Leónem (provincie León, Palencia, a Burgos), na západě s Asturií, a na severu s Biskajským zálivem (zde označovaným jako Kantaberské moře).
Kantábrie je nepřetržitě osídlena již 65 000 let. Kantábrijci jsou dokumentováni již v dílech starověkých Řeků a Římanů. Historie Kantábrie je však mnohem starší, sahající do pravěku. Asi nejznámější jsou malby v jeskyni Altmamira v Santillana del Mar malované člověkem již 13 000 let před n.l., které jsou známé po celém světě jako mistrovské dílo prehistorického umění.
V roce 711 n.l., po muslimské invazi do Španělska, se vizigótští králové a jejich šlechtici uchýlili do Asturie a Kantábrie, jejichž vysoké hory bránily v obsazování Maury. Odtamtud začalo opětovné dobytí Španělska, tzv. reconquista. Tato situace zapříčinila, že vizigótská křesťanská šlechta v Kantábirii tvořila až 80% obyvatelstva regionu (průměr ve zbytku Španělska nedosahuje ani 1%), a mnoho z nich má potomky mezi současnými Kantábrijci.
založení Šlechtického sboru Kantábrie
Navzdory výše uvedeným skutečnostem v Kantábrii neexistoval žádný šlechtický sbor, jako tomu bylo např. v sousední Asturii (Cuerpo de la Nobleza del Principado de Asturias, tj. Šlechtický sbor knížectví Asturie), proto byl dne 29. listopadu 2017 založen Šlechtický sbor Kantábrie (Cuerpo de la Nobleza de Cantabria), který má, mimo jiné aktivity, za cíl sdružovat šlechtice v tomto regionu.
co jsou to šlechtické sbory ve Španělsku a k čemu slouží?
Šlechtické sbory jsou soukromé instituce, jejichž cílem je, mimo jiné, akreditovat šlechtický stav u osob, které jsou do sboru přijaty. To znamená, že přijetí do šlechtického sboru potvrzuje šlechtictví přijatého, neboli, jedná se o osvědčení, které akredituje vůči ostatním šlechtický stav přijatých.
Ve Španělsku tuto funkci po staletí plnila Královská kancléřství (La Real Chancillería de Granada, Real Audiencia y Chancillería de Valladolid), což byly královské soudy, které rozhodovaly o tom, kdo je šlechticem a kdo ne. To, že byl dotyčný uznán šlechticem, mělo význam nejen kvůli jeho společenskému uznání a prestiži, současně byli totiž šlechtici osvobozeni od placení mnoha daní a jako jediní měli například přístup k pozicím soudce nebo starosty.
Tato praxe akreditace šlechtictví byla a je důležitá také z toho důvodu, že ve Španělsku existuje typ šlechtice, který se nevyskytuje v žádné jiné evropské zemi - tzv. hidalgo, tj. netitulovaný šlechtic. To znamená, že šlechtici označení jako vévodové, markýzové, hrabata, atd. mají šlechtický titul, který sám o sobě potvrzuje jejich šlechtický status. Oproti tomu hidalgové nemají žádný takový šlechtický titul. Šlechtictví, tzv. „la hidalguía“, je stav, který hidalgo dědí po svých předcích z titulu „noble de sangre“, tj. „šlechtické krve“, proto bylo nutné, aby oficiální orgán prohlásil, kdo je v těchto případech šlechtic (hidalgo) a kdo ne.
Když byla v letech 1837-1845 ve Španělsku zrušena šlechtická privilegia, Královská kancléřství zanikla a funkce, které tyto soudy vykonávaly, převzaly jednotlivé šlechtické sbory. Stát, jako takový, se přestal touto problematikou zaobírat, protože tato již nemělo žádné právní důsledky.
aktivity Šlechtického sboru Kantábrie
Šlechtický sbor Kantábrie se nevěnuje pouze uznávání šlechtictví, ale stal se zároveň společností, která sdružuje nejdůležitější a nejvýznamnější osoby v regionu, vykonává charitativní a kulturní aktivity, prostřednictvím mnoha dohod o spolupráci s jinými institucemi propaguje Španělsko v zahraničí, organizuje společenské akce, které jsou mimořádnou příležitostí k rozvíjení osobních vztahů na nejvyšší úrovni. Pro Šlechtický sbor Kantábrie je příznačné i to, že se orientuje na spolupráci zejména s mladými lidmi, pro které vytvořil množství specifických aktivit.
Stručně řečeno, příslušnost ke Šlechtickému sboru Kantábrie je symbolem osobní výlučnosti a společenské prestiže.
/article in english:/
Cantabria and the "Cuerpo de la Nobleza de Cantabria"
/Cantabria and the "Corps of the Nobility of Cantabria"/
Did you know that there is a "branch" of the Spanish noble institution in the Czech Republic?
In 2020, the "Cuerpo de la Nobleza de Cantabria" or "Corps of the Nobility of Cantabria", resp. the General Lieutenancy of the Noble Order of Saint Sergius, which is inextricably linked to this noble corp, was introduced to the Czech Republic.
a bit of geography and history
Cantabria is a province and at the same time one of the 17 autonomous communities, located in the north of Spain on the coast of the Bay of Biscay. The metropolis of this mountainous region is the port city of Santander, with a population of approximately 600,000.
In the east Cantabria borders the Basque Country (province of Vizcaya), in the south Castilla y León (province León, Palencia, and Burgos), in the west Asturias, and in the north the Bay of Biscay (here referred to as the Cantabrian Sea).
Cantabria has been continuously inhabited for 65,000 years. The Cantabrians are already documented in the works of the ancient Greeks and Romans. However, the history of Cantabria is much older, dating back to prehistoric times. Probably the most famous are the paintings in the Altmamira Cave in Santillana del Mar painted by man as early as 13,000 BC, which are known worldwide as a masterpiece of prehistoric art.
In 711 AD, after the Muslim invasion of Spain, the Visigothic kings and their nobles took refuge in Asturias and Cantabria, whose high mountains prevented the occupation of the Moors. From there began the reconquest of Spain, the so-called reconquista. This situation has caused the Visigothic Christian nobility in Cantabria to make up 80% of the region's population (the average in the rest of Spain is less than 1%), and many of them have descendants among the present-day Cantabria.
foundation of the Corps of the Nobility of Cantabria
Despite the above facts, there was no corps of nobility in Cantabria, as was the case in neighboring Asturias (Cuerpo de la Nobleza del Principado de Asturias, ie the Corps of the Nobility of the Principality of Asturias), so the Corps of the Nobility of Cantabria (Cuerpo de la Nobleza de Cantabria) was founded on November 29, 2017, which aims, among other activities, to bring together nobles in the region.
what are the corps of nobility in Spain and what are they for?
Corps of nobility are private institutions whose aim is, among other things, to accredit the noble status of persons who are admitted to the corps. This means that admission to the corps of nobility confirms the nobility received, that is, it is a certificate that accredits to other noble status admitted to others.
In Spain, this function was performed for centuries by the Royal Chancelleries (La Real Chancillería de Granada, Real Audiencia y Chancillería de Valladolid), which were the royal courts that decided who was the nobleman and who was not. The fact that he was recognized by a nobleman was important not only because of his social recognition and prestige, because at the same time the nobles were exempt from paying many taxes and were the only ones to have access to the positions of judge or mayor.
This practice of accreditation of nobility was and is also important because in Spain there is a type of nobleman that does not occur in any other European country - the so-called hidalgo, ie untitled nobleman. This means that nobles designated as dukes, marquises, counts, etc. have a noble title, which in itself confirms their aristocratic status. The Hidalgos, on the other hand, have no such noble title. Nobility, the so-called "la hidalguía", is a condition that the hidalgo inherits from its ancestors under the title "noble de sangre", ie "noble blood", so it was necessary for the official body to declare who in these cases the nobleman (hidalgo ) and who does not.
When aristocratic privileges were abolished in Spain in the years 1837-1845, the Royal Chancelleries ceased to exist and the functions performed by these courts were taken over by the individual corps of nobility. As such, the state stopped dealing with this issue because it no longer had any legal consequences.
activities of the Corps of the Nobility of Cantabria
The Corps of the Nobility of Cantabria is not only dedicated to the recognition of nobility, but has also become a organisation that brings together the most important people in the region, carries out charitable and cultural activities, promotes Spain abroad through many cooperation agreements with other institutions, organizes social events that are extraordinary opportunities to develop personal relationships at the highest level. It is also characteristic of the Corps of the Nobility of Cantabria that it focuses on cooperation especially with young people, for whom it has created a number of specific activities.
In short, belonging to the Corps of the Nobility of Cantabria is a symbol of personal exclusivity and social prestige.